Hive分析窗口函数(四) LAG,LEAD,FIRST_VALUE,LAST_VALUE

Hive版本为 apache-hive-0.13.1

备注: 这几个函数不支持WINDOW子句。

数据准备:

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CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE lxw1234 (
cookieid string,
createtime string, --页面访问时间
url string --被访问页面
) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
stored as textfile location '/tmp/lxw11/';

hive> select * from lxw1234;
OK
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55

LAG(col,n,DEFAULT) 用于统计窗口内往上第n行值
第一个参数为列名,第二个参数为往上第n行(可选,默认为1),第三个参数为默认值(当往上第n行为NULL时候,取默认值,如不指定,则为NULL)

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS rn,
LAG(createtime,1,'1970-01-01 00:00:00') OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS last_1_time,
LAG(createtime,2) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS last_2_time
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url rn last_1_time last_2_time
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 1 1970-01-01 00:00:00 NULL
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 NULL
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 3 2015-04-10 10:00:02 2015-04-10 10:00:00
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 4 2015-04-10 10:03:04 2015-04-10 10:00:02
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 5 2015-04-10 10:10:00 2015-04-10 10:03:04
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 6 2015-04-10 10:50:01 2015-04-10 10:10:00
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 7 2015-04-10 10:50:05 2015-04-10 10:50:01
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 1 1970-01-01 00:00:00 NULL
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 NULL
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 3 2015-04-10 10:00:02 2015-04-10 10:00:00
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 4 2015-04-10 10:03:04 2015-04-10 10:00:02
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 5 2015-04-10 10:10:00 2015-04-10 10:03:04
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 6 2015-04-10 10:50:01 2015-04-10 10:10:00
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 7 2015-04-10 10:50:05 2015-04-10 10:50:01

last_1_time: 指定了往上第1行的值,default为’1970-01-01 00:00:00’
cookie1第一行,往上1行为NULL,因此取默认值 1970-01-01 00:00:00
cookie1第三行,往上1行值为第二行值,2015-04-10 10:00:02
cookie1第六行,往上1行值为第五行值,2015-04-10 10:50:01
last_2_time: 指定了往上第2行的值,为指定默认值
cookie1第一行,往上2行为NULL
cookie1第二行,往上2行为NULL
cookie1第四行,往上2行为第二行值,2015-04-10 10:00:02
cookie1第七行,往上2行为第五行值,2015-04-10 10:50:01

LEAD(col,n,DEFAULT),与LAG相反,用于统计窗口内往下第n行值。逻辑与LAG一样,只不过LAG是往上,LEAD是往下。
第一个参数为列名,第二个参数为往下第n行(可选,默认为1),第三个参数为默认值(当往下第n行为NULL时候,取默认值,如不指定,则为NULL)

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS rn,
LEAD(createtime,1,'1970-01-01 00:00:00') OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS next_1_time,
LEAD(createtime,2) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS next_2_time
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url rn next_1_time next_2_time
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 2015-04-10 10:03:04
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 2015-04-10 10:10:00
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 3 2015-04-10 10:10:00 2015-04-10 10:50:01
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 4 2015-04-10 10:50:01 2015-04-10 10:50:05
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 5 2015-04-10 10:50:05 2015-04-10 11:00:00
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 6 2015-04-10 11:00:00 NULL
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 7 1970-01-01 00:00:00 NULL
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 2015-04-10 10:03:04
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 2015-04-10 10:10:00
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 3 2015-04-10 10:10:00 2015-04-10 10:50:01
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 4 2015-04-10 10:50:01 2015-04-10 10:50:05
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 5 2015-04-10 10:50:05 2015-04-10 11:00:00
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 6 2015-04-10 11:00:00 NULL
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 7 1970-01-01 00:00:00 NULL

FIRST_VALUE,取分组内排序后,截止到当前行,第一个值

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS rn,
FIRST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS first1
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url rn first1
---------------------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 1 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 2 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 3 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 4 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 5 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 6 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 7 url1
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 1 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 2 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 3 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 4 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 5 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 6 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 7 url11

LAST_VALUE,取分组内排序后,截止到当前行,最后一个值

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS rn,
LAST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS last1
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url rn last1
-----------------------------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 1 url1
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 2 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 3 1url3
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 4 url4
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 5 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 6 url6
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 7 url7
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 1 url11
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 2 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 3 1url33
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 4 url44
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 5 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 6 url66
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 7 url77

如果不指定ORDER BY,则默认按照记录在文件中的偏移量进行排序,会出现错误的结果

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
FIRST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid) AS first2
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url first2
----------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 url2
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 url2
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 url22
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 url22

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
LAST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid) AS last2
FROM lxw1234;

cookieid createtime url last2
----------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 url5
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 url5
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 url55
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 url55

如果想要取分组内排序后最后一个值,则需要变通一下:

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SELECT cookieid,
createtime,
url,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS rn,
LAST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime) AS last1,
FIRST_VALUE(url) OVER(PARTITION BY cookieid ORDER BY createtime DESC) AS last2
FROM lxw1234
ORDER BY cookieid,createtime;

cookieid createtime url rn last1 last2
-------------------------------------------------------------
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url1 1 url1 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url2 2 url2 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url3 3 1url3 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url4 4 url4 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url5 5 url5 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url6 6 url6 url7
cookie1 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url7 7 url7 url7
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:00 url11 1 url11 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:00:02 url22 2 url22 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:03:04 1url33 3 1url33 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:10:00 url44 4 url44 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:01 url55 5 url55 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 10:50:05 url66 6 url66 url77
cookie2 2015-04-10 11:00:00 url77 7 url77 url77

提示:在使用分析函数的过程中,要特别注意ORDER BY子句,用的不恰当,统计出的结果就不是你所期望的。

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